In a similar sense to line integrals, stochastic calculus extends the classical tools to working with stochastic processes. One of the most elegant and useful result is the change of variable formula for stochastic integrals, commonly known as Itô’s Lemma (see end of this post for a discussion on Doeblin’s contribution). While this lemma is quite easy to use, the proof usually relies heavily on technical lemmas, hence difficult to develop intuition, especially for the first time reader.
While studying two seemingly irrelevant subjects, probability theory and partial differential equations (PDEs), I ran into a somewhat surprising overlap: the Poincaré inequality. On one hand, it is not out of the ordinary for analysis based subjects to share inequalities such as Cauchy-Schwarz and Hölder; on the other hand, the two forms of Poincaré inequality have quite different applications.